Recurrence Prevention Stone Disease
FLUID AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS SUGGESTED FOR PEOPLE FORMING URINARY STONES
Stone disease of urinary tract tends to recur. Diet has a major role to play in occurrence and recurrence of stone disease. The following precautions will help you decrease chances of recurrence –
- Increased water intake for a urine-output of 2 – 2.5 liter / day is one of the most important and the least expensive form of conservative measure to reduce stone-recurrence
- Keep yourself well hydrated all the time; drink liquids at regular intervals. Increase intake according to activity (exercise, outdoor, etc.)
- Avoid cola drinks
- Avoid hard water (with high mineral content)
- Fresh citrus juices (particularly orange) without added sugar may have some stone-preventing properties; beware of sweetened products
Dietary fads with innumerable do’s and don’ts are common parlance, many of which have not been adequately studied. The diet for stone-patient is that of ‘moderation’; there are no absolute do’s and don’ts’. The following precautions may help you formulate a diet plan –
- Avoid excessively high amount of protein, particularly animal protein
- Take fruits, vegetables and salad every day
- Restrict salt intake; a practical way is to avoid sprinkling salt on fruits and salads, minimize fast food and use low-sodium salt
- Restrict refined sugar intake (e.g. glucose, sucrose, fructose), must you, take limited amount of sugar-free
- Restrict excessive consumption of fat; there is some evidence that consumption of fish oil (containing eicosapentaenoic acid) reduces the risk of recurrence of stones
- Keep a check on your weight by exercise and diet regulation; restriction on sugar and fat will help.
- Take adequate portion of milk / milk products (e.g. curd, yoghurt and cottage cheese) which are rich source of calcium in your diet. Both excess and deficiency of milk / milk products are detrimental in terms of stone recurrence. These are best taken with meals; calcium in milk decreases absorption of stone-forming oxalate in diet.
- Avoid excessive consumption of oxalate-rich food items; you don’t have to avoid completely. Some examples are – blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, plum, spinach, rhubarb, okra, beet greens, chocolate, cocoa, tomato, etc.