Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

Living kidney donation depicts an important source of organs for patients with end‐stage renal failure. Over the past decade in many transplant centres, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has replaced the conventional open procedure.

Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is an emerging technique which has not yet gained widespread acceptance in the transplant community due to perceived technical difficulties. However, the potential advantages of decreasing donor morbidity, decreasing hospital stay and improving convalescence while producing a functional kidney for the recipient may prove to increase living related renal transplantation.

Dialysis focuses on the diffusion of molecules across a semipermeable membrane, which separates blood on one side and the dialysate on the other.

Hemofiltration is based upon the principles of filtration and convection, (as opposed to diffusion) and mimics the function of the glomerular system. An ultrafiltrate is excreted, and the replacement of electrolytes with a specific solution is essential.

Kidney transplantation is indicated for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In such cases, it associates with a greater long-term survival rate and a better quality of life than dialysis.


Molecules diffuse across a semipermeable membrane down their concentration gradient and are removed from the blood.

Superior at removing low-weight molecules (e.g., urea, protein-bound drugs, ammonia).

Requires either a catheter (short-term option) or the creation and maturation of a fistula (long-term option)


Molecules are filtered out by a semipermeable membrane, whereas fluid passes through freely and re-enters the body (as “ultrafiltrate”).

Superior at removing middle-weight molecules (e.g., TNF, IL-8, IL-6) Replacement fluid is needed due to significant amounts of fluid are wasted in this process (“effluent”).